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Using Training to Reduce Fear and Anxiety in Dogs

Using Training to Reduce Fear and Anxiety in Dogs

Fear and anxiety are normal emotions that dogs experience just like humans do. Anxiety is characterized by apprehension, tension, and uneasiness about potential future threats or events. Fear is an emotional response to an immediate, perceived danger or threat. Both fear and anxiety can become problems in dogs if the emotions are prolonged or excessive compared to the actual threat or trigger.

Some common signs of fear or anxiety in dogs include trembling, panting, whining, barking, hiding, pacing, seeking comfort, becoming destructive, loss of appetite, and loss of bladder or bowel control. Triggers for these emotions can include loud noises like thunder or fireworks, strangers, unfamiliar environments, separation from owners, confinement, trauma or abuse, genetics and early puppyhood experiences.

While occasional, mild fear and anxiety are normal, chronic or severe fear and anxiety can be detrimental to a dog's health and quality of life. Therefore, it's important for dog owners to understand these emotions and utilize positive training methods to help dogs cope with and overcome unwanted fears and anxiety.

How Training Helps Reduce Fear and Anxiety

The good news is that dogs can overcome fear and anxiety through proper training and counterconditioning. Counterconditioning changes a dog's emotional response to a particular trigger or situation by associating it with something positive. This technique is effective because it taps into the natural process of learning.

There are several ways that training helps reduce fear and anxiety in dogs:

  • Establishing Predictability and Routines – Dogs feel more secure and relaxed when their environment and schedule are fairly predictable. Implementing structure through obedience training, designated eating and potty times can help lower a dog's baseline anxiety.

  • Building Confidence – Tricks, games and other engaging training activities can help timid dogs become more confident. As they gain skills and do behaviors successfully, it empowers them to approach the world in a more positive way.

  • Changing Associations – Using treats, praise and play to create positive associations with triggers helps counteract fearful or anxious reactions over time. For example, giving treats when a dog hears thunder can change thunder from scary to happy.

  • Providing an Outlet – Teaching dogs constructive ways to deal with stress, like performing commands or puzzle toys, gives them acceptable ways to release pent-up energy from anxiety.

  • Establishing Safety Cues – Consistently pairing cues like "all done" or "settle" with rewarding outcomes trains dogs to relax when they hear these cues in anxious situations.

  • Exposing Gradually – Systematic desensitization to triggers or situations exposes dogs at a slow pace they can handle so fear doesn't overwhelm them. As they become accustomed, their tolerance builds up.

  • Redirecting Attention – Redirecting a dog's focus from a trigger to a behavior they know well, like "sit", can snap them out of a fearful mindset and allow them to reorient to their owner and environment in a calmer state.

  • Building Obedience – A solid foundation of obedience training, especially the "look at me" command, increases a dog's trust in their owner, confidence and ability to re-focus when fearful.

  • Providing Security – Anxiety vests, crates, or safe spaces allow dogs to retreat somewhere that makes them feel more secure if emotions get overwhelming. These tools reduce the chance of fearful reactions.

Best Training Techniques to Reduce Fear

The most effective approaches utilize positive reinforcement to change a dog's emotional response and teach them healthy ways to cope with stressors. Here are some of the best techniques:

  • Desensitization and counterconditioning – Gradually exposing a dog to mild versions of a trigger, like recordings of fireworks, while pairing it with high-value treats trains the dog to associate good things with the previously feared stimulus.

  • Confidence building through rewards – Offering high rate food rewards for any behavior offered around a trigger, even subtle ones like ear flicks or sniffing, emboldens a dog to confront fears.

  • Creating positive associations – When introducing something new that may be frightening like an object or person, pair them with irresistible treats right away so the dog links them to good experiences.

  • High-value food rewards – Foods like real meat, cheese and peanut butter are ideal for fearful situations. The tastier the treats, the more motivated dogs are to overcome fear.

  • Fun training sessions – Incorporating play and engagement into training by doing activities the dog enjoys prevents sessions from adding more stress. Structuring sessions with variety, games and toys keeps dogs' energy positive.

  • Mat training – Placing treats or toys on a designated mat teaches dogs it's a safe place to retreat and refocus if afraid. They learn going to their mat results in good things.

  • Obedience cues as interrupts – Well-trained cues like "sit" or "look" interrupt fearful responses by prompting alternative calm behavior incompatible with fear.

  • Calming supplements – Products like calming chews or pheromone diffusers take the edge off fear and promote relaxation during training and stressful events. But training is still essential for real progress.

  • Escape hatches – Giving fearful dogs options to move away from triggers, like opening a door or gate so they can retreat, prevents them from feeling trapped and losing control.

Best Training Techniques to Reduce Anxiety

These science-based techniques are effective for lowering anxiety specifically:

  • Creating structure/routines – Consistent schedules for feeding, walks, training and play times lowers uncertainty and promotes relaxation.

  • Place training – Designating a mat or bed as the "place" where good things happen teaches dogs to go there to calm down when stressed.

  • Focus exercises – Eye contact, name response and hand targeting work refocuses anxious energy and reminds the dog to look to the owner for guidance.

  • Impulse control games – Activities requiring patience like "stay", "leave it" and "wait" build confidence and reduce reactivity.

  • Massage, T-Touch and stretching – Hands-on work releases tension, lowers heart rate, encourages relaxation and deep breathing.

  • Confinement training – Associating crate or playpen with enjoyable chews or toys teaches dogs to view the space as safe and relaxing.

  • Calming handling – Gentle stroking, lightly scratching chest or under the chin and slow steady strokes calm the nervous system.

  • Alarm cue training – Pairing a unique word/sound with any impending stressor alerts and prepares the dog for appropriate coping.

  • Organized exercise – Providing adequate physical and mental exercise prevents restless energy from escalating into anxiety.

  • Fun nosework – Scattering treats in grass or boxes for dogs to hunt exercises their nose instead of obsessively focusing on stressors.

  • Nutrition check – Ensure diet includes optimal protein, fat and nutrients and avoid artificial colors/preservatives that could contribute to anxiety.

Step-by-Step Protocol for Training Fearful Dogs

Here are the key steps to follow when implementing a customized training plan for a fearful dog:

  1. Avoid pushing too fast – Let the dog set the pace and don't flood them by forcing close proximity to triggers. Take a gradual approach.

  2. Identify all triggers – Pay attention to determine exactly what situations, objects, places or stimuli spark fear so these can all be addressed.

  3. Rank triggers from mild to high – Make a list ranking items from least to most frightening so they can be counterconditioned methodically from easier to harder.

  4. Start counterconditioning mildly frightening things first – Once the mildest triggers are identified, start there and work up the hierarchy.

  5. Use high-value food rewards & cheerfulness – Have special treats ready and be upbeat. Food and praise need to compete with the fear.

  6. Initiate coping mechanisms – Whether it's a mat, crate or another calming outlet, give the dog a way to take a break from stress if needed.

  7. Use obedience cues to redirect – If fearful reactions emerge, redirect to cues like "sit" or "look" that prompt more constructive behavior incompatible with fear.

  8. Allow to retreat when needed – If the dog needs to move away from the trigger to feel in control again, enable them to self-soothe by backing up.

  9. Keep sessions short – Training around triggers can be draining. Keep initial sessions just a few minutes, ending on a positive note.

  10. Build up tolerance gradually – Very slowly decrease distance to the trigger over multiple sessions with food rewards continuing each time.

  11. Address any secondary fears – If the primary trigger has led to fearful reactions to other associated things, use the same systematic process.

  12. Have realistic expectations – Extensive counterconditioning is often needed before big improvements are visible, but progress will come. Be patient and celebrate small achievements.

Step-by-Step Protocol for Training Anxious Dogs

To customize training for anxious dogs, follow these key steps:

  1. Schedule predictable routines – Implement consistent schedules for feeding, potty breaks, walks, training, play time and rest periods.

  2. Add enriching activities – Incorporate puzzle toys, snuffle mats, chews like frozen Kongs and opportunities to forage and use their nose.

  3. Rule out medical issues – Have the dog vet checked for any underlying physical contributors to anxiety like thyroid disorders.

  4. Verify exercise needs are met – Make sure the dog receives the appropriate amount of physical and mental stimulation to prevent pent-up energy.

  5. Teach settle and focus cues – Reinforce "settle" and "look at me" commands heavily. Cue them during stressful situations.

  6. Incorporate impulse control games – Spin, wait, leave it and other games strengthen patience and self-control.

  7. Establish a relaxation zone – Designate a mat, bed or crate as the go-to place to decompress. Heavily reinforce relaxing there.

  8. Use DAP, calming chews, etc. – Try adaptil pheromones, calming supplements or anxiety wraps to take the edge off while training.

  9. Model calm energy yourself – Be aware of your own energy/emotions since dogs pick up on human tension. Stay relaxed.

  10. Give mini breaks from stressors – If anxiety seems high, proactively interrupt situations before reactions escalate by giving brief breaks.

  11. Reward offered focus/attention – Reinforce the dog looking at or checking in with you to increase ability to reorient to you when anxious.

  12. Gradually increase tolerance – As coping improves, gently challenge the dog by very gradually exposing them to higher levels of triggers.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

It's important to avoid these common mistakes that can worsen fear and anxiety:

  • Punishment – Yelling, jerking leashes, scolding or using force increases anxiety and erodes trust. The dog may associate the punishment with the trigger.

  • Flooding – Exposing fearful dogs to triggers at overly close proximity or for too long overwhelms them and reinforces the fear instead of teaching them to handle it.

  • Tension on the leash – Pulling anxiously on the leash transmits tension to the dog. Keep a loose leash and relaxed posture.

  • Lack of outlets – Dogs need constructive ways to release stress energy. Without them, it continues to build up and escalate.

  • Skipping vet checkups – Medical issues can contribute to anxiety. Regular wellness exams help rule out conditions exacerbating it.

  • Neglecting fitness – Anxiety often worsens when dogs don't receive sufficient daily physical and mental exercise tailored to their needs.

  • Punishing fearful behaviors – Punishing growling, escaping, hiding, etc. suppresses important warning signs and removes ways for dogs to cope.

  • Ignoring body language – Missing subtle fearful reactions like lip licking, yawning, shaking off means missed opportunities to intervene.

  • Moving too fast – Rushing the training process by overwhelming dogs with triggers too quickly or intensely makes problems worse.

  • Ending on a bad note – Training sessions should always end on a positive note, not during peak stress. Otherwise, that stressful impression is the last one.


Fear and anxiety are complex issues in dogs, but very treatable through customized behavior modification training. The keys are understanding the emotional basis, implementing counterconditioning slowly, providing healthy outlets, building confidence with rewards and avoiding methods that add more stress. With time, patience and consistency using force-free techniques that fit each dog's unique needs, even severe cases can make significant progress in overcoming debilitating fears and anxieties. The powerful techniques explored here set owners and dogs up for success in reducing these challenging issues to improve emotional wellbeing.

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